Reverse polarity is standard protection required in an automotive environment. When battery cables are detached and reconnected there is a probability of connecting the wires to wrong terminals of the battery. This mistake could damage the components in Electronic Control Units (ECU). To avoid damage to the ECU there is a need for reverse polarity protection. Schotky diodes could be used but will have a constantly high power loss.
This reference design uses the LM5050-Q1 along with n-channel mosfet to provide reverse polarity protection and reduce the power dissipation.
Reverse polarity protection for 12V/24V/48V
Oring controller to connect multiple batteries
Improves system efficiency and very low quiescent current
Replaces the Schottky diode and reduces the power dissipation
ISO7637-2 and ISO16750-2 compliant
Read more here.